This historic book may have numerous typos and missing text. Purchasers can usually download a free scanned copy of the original book (without typos) from the publisher. Not indexed. Not illustrated. 1914 edition. Excerpt: ...Spinoza. A history of Spinozism is given in Erhardt's book, pp. 1-66, and a discussion of the different interpretations in the Appendix, pp. 466-502. The origin of Spinozism has been sought by different students of his doctrines in different sources: in Averroism, in the cabalistic and pantheistic literature of the Middle Ages, in the writings of the Jewish scholars Moses Maimonides and Creskas, in the speculations of Giordano Bruno. Whatever influence any or all of these teachings may have had on him, the indications are that the philosophy of Descartes furnished the building stones of his system. The problems which occupy his attention, and which he tries to solve, are problems which grew out of the theories of the great French rationalist, and the pantheistic conception which characterizes his own solution was a logical consequence of the Cartesian notion of God as the absolute substance. It is possible, however, that the Neoplatonism of the medieval Jewish thinkers led him to appreciate the pantheistic possibilities of the Cartesian system. The world is handled in the Spinozistic system like a problem in geometry. Everything is said to follow from the first prin logical presuppositions. Just as in a mathematical deduction the consequences are not mere temporal effects but as eternal as the principle itself, so things follow from the first cause, not as an evolution in time, but eternally, sub specie ceiernitatis. Time is a mere mode of thought, modus cogitandi, there is no before and after, but only eternity. Causari = sequi, causa = ratio; no distinction is made between rational or logical ground and real ground. Thought and being are identical. In reality, one thing follows another or is caused: the universe is a causal chain in...
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